One lesson a day

Adjective or adverb?

pexels-photo-heavy storm

The planes couldn’t take off due to the bad weather. (‘ bad ‘is an adjective)

Adjectives ( careful/quick) tell us something about the noun (somebody or something) . We use adjectives before nouns .

John is a careful driver .

They didn’t come because of the heavy storm .

I was admiring the beautiful flowers.

 

pexels-photo-horse racing
THE HORSE IS RUNNING FAST .( ‘fast ‘is an adverb)

Adverbs (quikly/carefully etc ) tell us about a verb ( how somebody does something or how something happens)

Alice drove carefully along the narrow street.

My brother didn’t go out because it was snowing heavily.

The cat was walking silently .

PLEASE COMPARE !

She speaks perfect English . -Here ‘perfect’ is an adjective because it describes the noun ‘English’.

She speaks English perfectly . Here ‘perfectly’ is an adverb because it describes the verb ‘speak’.

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THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS IN /ON/TO/AT

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The boats are sailing in the Mediterranean Sea.

A 1.We usually use ‘ IN‘ with spaces :

  • in a room / in a building      They live in a small room .

 

  • in a garden / in a park          The children are playing in the garden .

We are walking in the park .

  2. We use ‘IN‘ with bodies of water

  •     in the water                          The fish is swimming in the water .
  •     in the sea /in a river            The boat is sailing in the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. We use ‘IN‘with lines

  • in a row / in a line                    The students are waiting quietly in a row.
  • in a queue

 

asad-atoll-biology-169191
The beautiful flowers are on the table.

B 1. We use ‘ON‘ with surfaces

  • on the ceiling / on the wall / on the floor     There are some beautiful carpets on                                                                                 the floor.
  • on the table                                                         The book is on the table .

     2. We use ‘ON’ with small islands                    I stayed on Maui .

     3. We usually use ‘ ON ‘ with directions

  • on the left                      The house is on the left side of the river .
  • on the right
  • straight on
child going to scool.jpeg
The boy is going to school.

C 1. We use ‘TO’ with movement from one place to another

  • I went to school .
  • Did you go to work?
  • Let’s go to the shopping mall .

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WILL / SHALL

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‘What would you like to drink?’ ‘I’ll have a cup of coffee, please.’

I will/I’ll

We use I’ll ( I will ) when we have just decided to do something. When we say‘I ‘ll dosomething’ , we actually announce our decision.

CONTRACTIONS: I will – I’ll

                                  I will not – I won’t

Example!

1.I have left the window open. I’ll just go and close it.’

2.‘What would you like to drink?’ ‘I’ll have a lemonade, please.’

3.‘Did you call Elisabeth?’ ‘I’ll call her now.’

RULE!

We cannot  use the Present Simple in the following sentences:

It is NOT correct to say : ‘I go and close the window.

CORRECT :   I’ll go and close the window.

The negative of ‘ I will” is ‘I won’t.

Example.                                                                                                                                          I understand you’re busy so I won’t stay long.

RULE! We DON’T use ‘will’ for something we decided before.                                              Example .                                                                                                                                        I am not going on holiday next week.  Are you coming with us ?

Shall I…?/Shall we…?

‘ Shall ‘ is mostly used in the questions .  We use ‘Shall I…?/Shall we…?’ to ask somebody’s opinion(especially in offers or suggestions).

1. Shall I open the door? (=Do you want me to open the door?)

2. I lost all my documents. What shall I do?(=What do you advice me to do?)

COMPARE ! Shall I…? and will you…?

Shall I close the window? (= Do you want me to to close it?)

Will you open the door? (= I want you to open it.)

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I am travelling to Venice next week.

We use the present continuous for the future for personal arrangements .

This is my schedule for next week.

Monday I am going to school.

Tuesday I am travelling to Venice.

Saturday I am attending a business meeting.

RULE! In all these examples , I have already decided and arranged to do these things.

I am doing something tomorrow= it is something arranged and I have decided to do it.

Paul isn’t going to play tennis next Sunday. He has hurt his arm.

A. What are you going to do on Saturday? ( Not: ‘ What do you do on Saturday?”

B. I am visiting my aunt .

We use the present simple when we talk about timetables , programmes etc ( for public transport , cinemas etc) :

  1. Our train leaves at 1:30 , so I need to be at the station by 11.30 .
  2. What time does the concert start this evening?

We can also use the present simple to talk about people if their plans are fixed like a time table .

  1. I start my lesson on Monday .
  2. What time do you finish your class tomorrow?

PRACTICE!

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Past Perfect vs Past Perfect Continuous (part II)

snowing day

When we reached the mountains it had been snowing for 3 days .

 

The past perfect continuous is formed by using the auxiliary had been+ing form of the verb  ( had been working ) .

AFFIRMATIVE     : I/you/he/she/it/we/they had been working .

NEGATIVE            :I/you/he/she/it/we/they had not( hadn’t) been working.

INTERROGATIVE :Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they been working ?

 

When do we use Past Perfect Continuous ?

We use Past Perfect Continuous to talk about in the pathe duration of an activity up to a point in the past.

COMPARE !

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about how long an activity had been going on up to the present .

Example. I have been working here for three months. ( I am still working here now .)

We use the Past Perfect Continuous to talk about the duration of an activity up to a point in the past .

Example . When I left my last job , I had been working there for four years. ( I started in 1990 and I left in 1994 ).

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PRACTICE!

Copy of Copy of Copy of Keep the clothes you model!

 

 

Present Perfect vs Present Perfect Continuous(part I)

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When I arrived home the party had already finished.

We form past perfect with had + past participle

I/you/he/she/it/we/they had worked .

I/you/he/she/it/we/they had not( hadn’t ) worked.

Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked?

CONTRACTIONS

had = ‘d             had not = hadn’t

Some verbs are ‘ regular’ , other verbs are ‘irregular’ :

  • The past participle of regular verbs has an -ed ending ( example: clean –cleaned , play–played )

When we add -ed to verbs , there are sometimes changes in spelling ( example : stop–stopped) .

  • Irregular verbs have different past participle forms ( eg. know –knew , sit–sat )

When do we use past perfect simple?

1. When we are talking about the past , sometimes when we refer back to an earlier past .

EARLIER PAST ————————————-   PAST

2. We use the past perfect ( eg. she had left ) to talk about something which had happend before the past time we are thinking about ( when I called ).

EXAMPLES . We arrieved at the party at 9:00 , but the show had started at 8:00 .

I couldn’t understand why Simon hadn’t returned the books .

 

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THEY HAVE BEEN FLYING ALL DAY .

We form the present perfect contiuous with have/has been + ….ing .

 AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE  INTERROGATIVE
 I have been working  I haven’t been working  Have I been working?
He/she/it has been

working

He /she/it hasn’t been working  Has he been working?
 You/we/they have been working   You/we/they haven’t been working  Have they been working?

CONTRACTIONS

have=’ve                       have not=haven’t

has=’s                            has not= hasn’t

WHEN DO WE USE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS ?

Sentences with present perfect contiuous connect the present and the past .

  1. We usually use the present perfect continuous to talk about something that started in the past and has been in progress up to the present .

We can say how long with since and for .

We use since when we give the beginning of the time ( for example since Tuesday) .

EXAMPLE . It’s been snowing since Tuesday .

We use for when we give the length of time.

EXAMPLE . It’s been snowing for three days .

2. We use present perfect continuous when an action has been in progress up to the recent past , especially when the action has results in the present .

EXAMPLE . It has been snowing .( Explanation . It isn’t snowing now , but there is snow on the ground .)

REMEMBER!

  1. We use present perfect mostly for finished actions but the results are shown in the present                                                                                                              Example  . I’ve witten to John , so he knows everything .

We also use the present perfect to say how much or how often.

Example . I’ve traveled to nine countries this year .

2. We use the present perfect continuous ( progressive) mostly for unfinished actions continuing up to now . We mostly use it to say how long .

Example . The children have been playing all day .

The present perfect progressive can also be used for longer , more permanent situations . However , we often prefer a simple present perfect, especially when we are talking about unchanging states rather than actions.

Example . He‘s been standing here for hours . – Present perfect progressive

The castle has stood on this hill for 900 years . – Present perfect simple

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VERB TENSESPresent Continuous vs Present Simple

We use Present Simple to talk about

  • something is true in general
  • something happens all the time or repeatedly

FORMS OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS :  verb “to be” + ing

I am  ( I’m) reading

he/she/it is doing

we/you/they are working

A. Moment of speaking . We use present continuous to talk about an activity taking      place at the moment of speaking :                                                                                              Example: Please don’t disturb me. I’m trying to work.

B. Current activities . We use present continuous to talk about actions or activities        that are taking place over a period of time( even if they are not taking place                  precisely at the moment of speaking) .

Example : I am reading a very interesting book at the moment. It’s an adventure                            book.                                                                                                                                                 Explanation I am not reading the book at the moment of speaking ; I have started it but I haven’t finished it . I am in the middle of reading it.

C. Temporary situations . We also use present continuous to indicate that an action        or activity is temporary rather than permanent .

Example : Mrs. Parker organizes our parties.                                                                                           ( Here we use Present Simple because this is generally true)

Mrs. Parker is away on vacation , so I am organizing them.

(Here the Present Continuous is used because this is true only for a                                  limited time.)

PRACTICE!

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VERB TENSES -PRESENT TENSES –Present Simple

We use Present Simple to talk about things in general . We use it to say that

  • something happenns all the time or reapeatedly ,
  • something is true in general

Examples:

I usually sleep late at weekends.

The shop opens at 7.30 in the morning .

Remember! 

I work                                                                He works

We work                                                            She works

You work                                                           It works

They work

Practice!

online

 

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